|Important! To Read! those tutorials about the night VFR and IFR ratings, and about flying the airliners are not as accurate and reliable than those dedicated to the VFR flights. It's because we really practised the VFR flights, as we didn't ever qualify for the night VFR and the IFR ratings nor any commercial license! Our tutorials about such flights are based on our VFR experience only, and augmented with data and readings taken from the Internet! People who would like to find in those the same level of accuracy and details than in our VFR tutorials, should better turn to further websites or source. People who are just looking for a honest level of realism might be satisfied already with the level of our tutorials about the night VFR, IFR flights, and the ones aboard an airliner|
Airliners are rarely subject to any major failure as such failures are part of the pilots training. They are largely similar to the ones practiced by the light twin engine pilots (see, too, the tutorial for the second part of the IFR, twin training) with considered failures being like a one-engine failure during the takeoff roll, at takeoff, in flight, or engine and flight deck various fires, for example. An engine failure during a transatlantic flight, for example, necessitates some specific training, as such failures needs that a landing terrain in Iceland or the Azores be reached with the remaining engine, or engines. The procedures described, albeit sufficiently realistic don't build upon any existing documentation and thus may differ from the actual, real-world procedures. For an increased realism, closest still to the real world, you'll try to find some source on the Internet. Airlines' pilots, at interval, do train for those emergency procedures on a simuator, so to be able to master any such failures. You'll do so in FS, by having to find some way (like tweaking with windows) to configure FS like a simulator, and bringing a 'rupture of reality' and a sense of artificial and of a simulator. The following emergency procedures are true for the twin-engine airliners, like the Boeing 737-400 or the 777, as, for the four-engines like a Boeing 747, you'll have to adapt the procedures. Pilots, generally, in case of a real emergency, take actions in that order: maintaining the plane's trajectory, taking actions related to the failure, radioing a emergency call ('Mayday, Mayday, Mayday') and/or setting the transponder to 7700. In case the crew be obliged to a descent, they first will have to steer the plane either side away from the airways which it was flying along. Of note, at last, that the cabin crew have some training of their own like the emergency door openings, the passengers inflatable evacuation ramps, etc.
a airliner training simulator, as simulated in FS2002 (non-clickable illustration)
During the takeoff roll, one of both engine of the airliner goes off! What to do? Just throttles full out (possibly after having unengaged the TO/GO takeoff setting). Apply the spoilers and the inverters. Just keep the plane going unto the central line of the runway. Below 60 kts, just foot-brake! The airplane should stop before the runway's end as the V1 speed is calculated at that effect. Just stop the plane on the runway (don't try to exit the runway!). Now you'll have to contact the TWR controller to warn him of the trouble you're encountering and you'll order the evacuation of the plane! That is done by the cabin crew. Meanwhile you'll secure the failed engine (throttle for the engine: FULL OUT. Start lever (on the levers console, for the failed engine): OFF. Engine start (idem): OFF. Then just procede with an usual parking configuration of the airliner by setting the other engine off and following -quickly- the usual procedure. At last, you're authorized, with the first officier, to evacuate! note 1: should you use keys of the keyboard to control the rudder of the plane, it seems better to re-activate the 'Automatic Rudder' option in the 'Realism Settings' menu of FS, excepted with an actual first pilot, as to control the rudder through keys at the same time than to engage the spoilers, inverters, etc. may prove uneasy. To reactivate the automatic rudder in FS does not modify how the plane reacts to the engine failure! note 2: about how to simulate the engine failure, you may, out of realism, check E + 1 (or 2), which select the separate throttle action for one engine only, and then, at the moment you choose, just throttle out the engine chosen, which is sufficient to simulate a failure. Then however, you'll have to check E + 2 (or 1), or E + 1 + 2 so be able to act upon the engine which keeps running (using back the coupled throttling for both engine does not act neither upon realism)
One of both engines fails as the plane already has passed Vr, and is taking off, or few after! The following procedure is described for a Boeing 737 as you will have to adapt the values for a 777 or 747 (note 1: for that training, you will have to check the option 'Automatic Rudder' in the panel 'Realism Settings'. Should you not use a rudder-simulator, you will have to chose three keys easy to used (personally, we have chosen the C, V and B keys for the commands 'Right Yaw (Rudder)', 'Ailerons and Rudder Centered', and 'Left Yaw (Rudder)' respectively, with those keys bringing a few change to the defaults. It's up to you, of course, to decide, for you own usage, what keys you will use, instead of the default keys, which are few easy to use) (note 2: it seems better, for that training, to use the "System Failures" menu in FS2002. Either, at the moment when one wants the failure to occur, one will go to 'Engines', 'Engine A' (or 2) and check 'Failing' and, when you'll close the panel, the failure will occur right then, or, in the panel allowing to assign keys of the keyboard, you'll choose 'Failures Commands' (in the 'Normal Flight Mode') and assign a key to the desired key. Then, when triggering that key, during the flight, that will trigger the failure!). Just keep taking off, using the remaining engine! Due to the loss of power, however, and to the tilt the plane is swiftly taking, several measures are to be taken immediately! You'll will keep the plane level using the rudder. You'll then decrease the climb pitch down to 10 degree only, with a climb rate at 700 ft/mn only, which will give the plane a speed of 150 kts. Then, just keep climbing this way to a safe altitude of 5,000 ft (or according the altitude of the surrounding relief). Landing gear: UP. Flaps: OUT, down to 5 only. Autobrake: OFF. By 1,000 ft just complete that stabilization of the plane through turning the autopilot on: 5,000 ft (or the altitude you're aiming to) at ALT, and runway heading at HDG. Now, you'll have to turn to the failed engine! The first thing to do is first to try to re-start it! Throttle of the failed engine full OUT, start lever (on the throttle panel) for the engine: OFF, engine start: OFF and then the inverted procedure to try to re-start the engine: throttle of the failed engine full OUT, start lever (on the throttle panel) for the engine: ON, engine start: ON and hold until the engine runs (applying the usual start procedure for an engine). Should the engine works back, you'll keep the previous emergency settings at the autopilot and you'll call the controllers (TWR, or the departures) to tell them the trouble you encountered. They then will vectorize you back for a landing on the runway you just left, as it would be unsafe to perform your flight with a dubious engine (for as far as the landing back is concerned, just see what follows, with the difference that you, very theoretically, now are using two engines. If the engine doesn't start back, the engine failure is ascertained and the pilots are calling the controllers (TWR, or the departures) to tell them of the engine failure. They are then giving you bearings to bring you back for a landing -usually unto the runway you have taken off from- with a certain delay allowed -through appropriate headings- so that the emergency crews at the airport take position and that you have time for jettisoning the plane's fuel tanks, for reasons of security, over a pertaining terrain. The cabin crew is warned, and they prepare in turn the passengers for an emergency landing! Once reached the safe altitude you decided, keep with 150 kts and flaps at 5. The controllers slowly are bringing you back to the airport -to avoid any strong turn as you'll use the instrument approach. Just jettison the fuel, keeping 25 percent minimum in the center tank. When approaching the instrument approach -or whatever- (which is to intercept a low angles of a heading, like about 45 degree maximum), just configure at that moment the plane for the landing, like for a usual approach, with those settings specific: autobrake on a feeble value, pitot: ON, GPS: NAV, lights: LIKE THEY ARE (as you didn't modify the settings of those since the takeoff) as you will intercept an ILS with those values: 12NM from the runway, 150 kts, 2100ft, flaps at 15. And you fly the final, and you land! At the moment when the pilot has the plane back, you'll check to avoid any brisk input, command, or setting as the plane few stable and that you have a few power's reserve in case that you would be needed for a correction. Controlling the plane through the rudder, with keys, on the other hand, may prove difficult to persons not used too. One solution may be, when one takes the plane back, to keep the speed under the control of the autopilot down to just before landing. That's allowing 'more hands' to steer the plane with the yoke and rudder. You'll just take the automatic speed control off just over the runway's threshold, to allow you to throttle back for landing! After landing, it may be hard to keep the plane unto the runway's axis. Just trigger the inverters slowly, and few, only. The plane, after landing, shall be left in place on the runway, and you'll have to swiftly configure it like at the parking. The cabin crew meanwhile will just evacuate the passengers according to their emergency procedures
One of both engine fails as the airliner is in flight, at its cruise level. The case taken there to illustrate the procedure is a twin-engine, the Boeing 737 on a flight at the 300 FL. Data are to be interpretated for a 777 or a 747! The first thing, as soon as the failure occurs, is to have the plane to descend, as the plane, with one engine, won't be able to maintain its cruise speed! Just set 20,000 ft to the autopilot, with the usual descent rate of 1800 ft/mn, and 210 kts like the IAS speed, with the following settings: pitot: ON, strobe: ON You swiftly call the controllers and tell them that you're leaving your flight level for cause of a presumed engine failure and a re-start try. Then you can try to re-start the failed engine, like, throttle of the failed engine full OUT, start lever (on the throttle panel) for the engine: OFF, engine start: OFF and then the inverted procedure to try to re-start the engine: throttle of the failed engine full OUT, start lever (on the throttle panel) for the engine: ON, engine start: ON and hold until the engine runs (applying the usual start procedure for an engine). If the engine is back, and compared to what follows, you'll be able to extend the range by which you'll be looking for a emergency airport as you'll now have two engines, one of them dubious. Just hold 20,000 ft and about 250 kts and just search, with the control, an emergency airport which is featuring the values requested for a Boeing 737. Just follow then the usual descent, approach, instrument approach and landing checklists! Meanwhile, just mitigate, with the controllers and you company's technical crew, whether the passengers will have to be evacuated or not and whether the fuel will have to be jettisoned, in case of risk, as you'll close to the airport! If the engine doesn't re-start and the engine failure is ascertained, you'll likely be around 23,000 ft. Just keep descending as you call the aerial control. Just aim 18,000 ft, the altitude at which you will able to fly a sufficient speed of 210 kts with one engine only (the descent rate is 1800 ft/mn). When aiming 18,000 ft, you'll have checked the altitude of the terrain in the neighbourhood. Then you'll configure the failed engine in a parking configuration (throttle of the failed engine full OUT, start lever (on the throttle panel) for the engine: OFF, engine start: OFF). Landing lights are ON as soon as now, and the autobrake setting at 1. On distances which may be long, just use the rudder -and the ruder tabs to ease the action- to keep the plane level. And then, with the controllers, just search for the nearest emergency airport, suitable to your plane and, the case occurring, one heads there immediately! Should the emergency airport a longer distance to reach, you'll fly then at 18,000 ft, 210 kts and with the same worry about the surrounding terrain's altitude. Once the emergency airport chosen, check -and set- too the data, values, and frequencies for a landing there. On the leg, just mitigate, with the controllers and you company's technical crew, whether the passengers will have to be evacuated or not and whether the fuel will have to be jettisoned, in case of risk, as you'll close to the airport. As far as the settings for the ILS' interception and the landing are concerned, just use the usual values, added with 15 kts. Avoid too any sharp input or command by worry of the stability of the plane. The remarks which has been exposed at 'One Engine Failure at Takeoff' for the landing are true too for that landing
note; FS2002 allows to a direct heading to a chosen emergency airport, through the GPS panel. Just click twice on 'Heading to' (the D with a arrow). That's displaying, a emergency list of all the neighbouring airports and terrains, with their heading and distance. Just highlight the airport where you are going to make a emergency landing, and click Enter. The said airport becomes the next waypoint on your flight plan. An alternate methode -especially for a airport you know the ID, or not in the list, is to click 'Heading to' just once. This allows you to set the ID you have gotten of a aiport. Click Enter and that airport replaces all your current flight plan, with, now just the bearing and distance of the emergency airport. It doesn't look like FS is recalculating to use any airway. This displays, further, allows you to chose or enter a VOR, a NDB or a ISEC and to get their a bearing and a distance -or to enter that point in replacement of your flight plan, like before
An engine is failing as you are crossing the pond! The plane taken for that procedure is a Boeing 747. The emergency procedure for the case is an emergency landing either in Reikjavik, in Iceland, or in the Azores, function of where the failure occurred. For the descent and flight, just check at the 'One Engine Failure Procedure' procedure above. Once the failure occurred, the first action to take is to try to re-start the failed engine! Like, throttle of the failed engine full OUT, start lever (on the throttle panel) for the engine: OFF, engine start: OFF and then the inverted procedure to try to re-start the engine: throttle of the failed engine full OUT, start lever (on the throttle panel) for the engine: ON, engine start: ON and hold until the engine runs (applying the usual start procedure for an engine). Should the engine works back, just call the Oceanic control under the jurisdiction of which you fall and are, and tell them the trouble you have gotten! They likely are to direct you down to Reikjavik-Keflavik, in Iceland, or to the Santa Maria airport, in the Azores. Just set too an emergency frequency at 121.5 MHz at one of the radios. Your descent is configured like for a normal descent (pitot, etc., autopilot settings), albeit you are having one of the four engines unsafe. The descent however to the emergency landing, is performed through two legs, one at 20,000, one at 10,000 ft respectively, which are reached through a descent rate of 300 ft/mn only as the distance to Iceland or the Azores are vast! Once reached the first altitude, just hold that, at the usual descent speed. As soon as you'll begin your descent, just think to have the data and frequencies for the emergency landing. With one engine unsafe, the whole approach and landing procedures remain the same (250 kts at 10,000 ft, progressive decrease of speed, flaps, etc.). You'll avoid any sharp maneuver or turn, out of safety concern, during the approach and landing steps. During the descent you'll have mitigated, with the controllers and you company's technical crew, whether the airliner will be able to reach the parking lots and gates on its own and whether the passengers will have to be evacuated or not. If the engine has not re-started, the engine failure is ascertained and you'll have to configure the failed engine in a parking configuration (throttle of the failed engine full OUT, start lever (on the throttle panel) for the engine: OFF, engine start: OFF). Just follow with calling the Oceanic control under the jurisdiction of which you fall and are, and tell them the trouble you have gotten! They will direct you, function of you location, down to Reikjavik-Keflavik, in Iceland, or to the Santa Maria airport, in the Azores and you'll set too an emergency frequency at 121.5 MHz at one of the radios. The descent procedure, with three engines running instead of 4 only, is the same than the one described just above. A Boeing 747 with three engines running is keepin enough power as however a slight tilt of the plane will have to be countered through a rudder action! Think too, on such distances, to use the benefit of the rudder tabs. Under 10,000 ft, the approach and landing maneuvers and procedures remain the same than usual as, there too, an action on the rudder will be need (and no tabs use as the distances then become short). With an engine out, there too, you'll have mitigated, with the controllers and you company's technical crew, whether the passengers will have to be evacuated or not, and whether a fuel jettisoning will be needed before the final phases of the flight, any risk should be extant
The same GPS method described above at 'One Engine Failure in Flight' is also useful to head to Keflavik, or to Santa Maria. The IDs for both are BIKF and LPAZ respectively! Just click once on 'Heading to' (the D with an arrow) and enter the ID of either, like directed by the controllers. Clicking Enter just displays the airport chosen, with its bearing and distance, instead of your flight plan!
The pressurization system of the cabin fails, while in flight! The plane chosen for that emergency training is a Boeing 737. The pressurization circuit too regulates the heat in the cabin. The emergency procedure mainly consists into to have the altitude decrease the more rapidly possible and bring it down to 10,000 ft, an altitude at which the oxygen present in the air, outside, is back to an acceptable density as the external temperature too. The passengers, otherwise, would not be able to breathe anymore, and would have to withstand the harsh temperatures of the flight altitude! The emergency procedure is easy. Once the failure of the system is checked, you'll first try to swiftly have the pressurization system back to work (the commands are located unto the head panel). In case of failure, the pressurization system failure is ascertained. Just warn the cabin crew, which, in turn, is to warn the passengers, with the emergency oxygen masks falling on their own, and the crew distributing blankets. Then, on the flight deck, yourself will have the plane loose its altitude! Set the pitot: ON, strobe: ON. 10,000 ft set to the autopilot, with a descent rate of 3,000 ft/mn. The IAS speed at 325 (which will translate into a real 325-kt speed of the plane; which is 15 kts below the Vmo speed of 340 kts never to exceed for a Boeing 737-400). The GPS set to NAV. You then engage a 180-degree turn, left or right. That first U turn will be followed by a second one, as you'll reach an altitude of 10,000 ft few after one complete, 360-degree turn! Some other source state the following values of a descent rate established at 4,500 ft/mn, the plane flying long a large bent to avoid any other aircraft, anf the target altitude is at 13,000ft where air turns breathable. Caution! You'll take care about the terrain below and its altitude. That will eventually bring you to modify the procedure and to reach the 10,000 ft in altitude on a straight line, or several legs instead of a 360-degree turn. During the descent, just contact the controllers and tell them of the trouble. You will search, with them, a emergency airport (you'll set the autopilot and radios to the VORs, frequencies, etc. of that terrain for the approach and landing). When closing to 10,000 ft, take the heading to that emergency airport. Once at 10,000 ft, set 250 kts like the speed, and landing lights: ON. Then you'll just fly the approach and landing with the usual parameters. Along the descent or the leg to the terrain, you'll have mitigated too, with the controllers and you company's technical crew, whether the passengers will have to be evacuated or not, and whether a fuel jettisoning will be needed before the final phases of the flight, any risk should be extant
In case of an engine fire, you'll have to immediately trigger the engine's automatic fire extinguisher, which, for an airliner, will be enough to stop the fire. Then, just secure the failed engine (throttle for the engine: FULL OUT. Start lever (on the levers console, for the failed engine): OFF. Engine start (idem): OFF). note: do not try to restart the engine! The engine, after a fire, is considered unfit. You'll then swiftly apply the engine failure procedures as described in the different sections of this part of the tutorial dedicated to the emergency procedures. As an engine fire is relatively more dangerous than an engine failure due to that fire may, in a short lapse of time, have damaged varied circuits in the engine or the neighbouring, or depending circuits. So, you will have to hasten the search for a emergency airport, or hasten any return to the takeoff runway. You'll take care however to perform the procedures securely and to follow all of the procedures described in that part of the tutorial!Website Manager: G. Guichard, site Lessons In Microsoft Flight Simulator / Leçons de vol pour les Flight Simulator de Microsoft, http://flightlessons.6te.net.htm. Page Editor: G. Guichard. last edited: 3/25/2015. contact us at email@example.com